What does…suggest to…/What is…advice
What is the reason for…
What account for…
What is important/essential/crucial/necessary…
What can conclude…
How…/In what way…
2. 再说推理题。一般可以涉及到what + learn, say, think, imply, infer, suggest等基本上就是对文章细节进行推理的。常见的提问方式一般都是：
What can/do we learn from…
What do…find/say about…
46. What can we learn about marriage vows from the passage?
47. What did Karraker and co-author Kenzie Latham find about elderly husbands?
48. What does Karraker say about women who fall ill?
49. Why is it more difficult for men to take care of their sick spouses according to Karraker?
50. What does Karraker think is also important?
Nobody really knows how big Lagos is. What's indisputable is that it's growing very quickly. Between now and 2050, the urban population of Africa could triple. Yet cities in sub-Saharan Africa are not getting richer the way cities in the rest of the world have. Most urban Africans live in slums （贫民窟）; migrants are often not much better off than they were in the countryside. Why?
The immediate problem is poverty. Most of Africa is urbanizing at a lower level of income than other regions of the world did. That means there's little money around for investment that would make cities livable and more productive. Without upgrades and new capacity, bridges, roads and power systems are unable to cope with expanding populations. With the exception of South Africa, the only light rail metro system in sub-Saharan Africa is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Traffic jam leads to expense and unpredictability, things that keep investors away.
In other parts of the world, increasing agricultural productivity and industrialization went together. More productive farmers meant there was a surplus that could feed cities; in turn, that created a pool of labor for factories. But African cities are different. They are too often built around consuming natural resources. Government is concentrated in capitals, so is the money. Most urban Africans work for a small minority of the rich, who tend to be involved in either cronyish （有裙带关系的） businesses or politics. Since African agriculture is still broadly unproductive, food is imported, consuming a portion of revenue.
46. What do we learn from the passage about cities in sub-Saharan Africa?
A. They have more slums than other cities in the world.
B. They are growing fast without becoming richer.
C. They are as modernized as many cities elsewhere.
D. They attract migrants who want to be better off.
47. What does the author imply about urbanization in other parts of the world?
A. It benefited from the contribution of immigrants.
B. It started when people's income was relatively high.
C. It benefited from the accelerated rise in productivity.
D. It started with the improvement of peopled livelihood.
48. Why is sub-Saharan Africa unappealing to investors?
A. It lacks adequate transport facilities.
B. The living expenses there are too high.
C. It is on the whole too densely populated.
D. The local governments are corrupted.
大家看47题，题干颇具误导性，问的是世界其他地方的城市化问题。46题的答案在第一段，原文一共4段，按照平均分配来看，第二段应该会有47题的答案，但是如果审题时盯住了“in other parts of the world”很容易会被带到第三段首句中，进一步错误地选择C选项。这就是忽视了出题顺序问题，更何况处理48题时会发现，48题的答案居然在第二段结尾划线部分，更应该警醒47题不可能跑到48题之后去寻找答案。
就47题来看，除了“in other parts of the world”之外还应该注意“urbanization”的问题，第三段谈的是农业和工业化的问题，跟这个题干实属不相干。正确答案位置在于第二段开头部分Most of Africa is urbanizing at a lower level of income than other regions of the world did.
Other regions 和other parts是同义替换，原句理解起来就是说大多数非洲国家的城市化的收入起点要比世界其他国家低，言下之意，就是世界其他国家城市化开始时，人民收入水平相对较高，四个选项只有B非常符合。那么这层意思并非原文直接表述，属于推理性质的言外之意，题干中的字眼也是imply，暗示的意思。
47. What do we learn from previous survey findings about women seeking leadership roles?
48. What is the primary factor keeping women from taking top leadership positions according to the recent survey?
两句话的划线部分决定了这两个题一个定位的是previous survey之前的调查；另一个是the recent survey最近的调查。如果忽视了这个细节，审题不严谨，就肯定造成失误。
The report says America's urbanization will continue to be the most significant issue affecting the industry, as cities across the country imitate thewalkability and transit-oriented development making cities like New York and San Francisco so successful.
As smaller cities copy the model of these "24-hour cities," more affordable versions of these places will be created. The report refers to this as the coming of the "18-hour city," and uses the term to refer to cities like Houston, Austin, Charlotte, and Nashville, which are "positioning themselves as highly competitive, in terms of livability, employment offerings, and recreational and cultural facilities."
47. What characterizes "24-hour cities" like New York?
A. People can live without private cars.
B. People are generally more competitive.
C. People can enjoy services around the clock.
D. People are in harmony with the environment.
各位看47题，问的是像纽约这种24小时城市的特点是什么，定位很简单，很多人会一眼看到如上第二段的开头划线句，但是貌似没有怎么描述其特征，于是可能展开想象，“24小时城市当然就是提供24小时服务的城市”C选项刚好包括around the clock也就是夜以继日的意思，立马锁定了答案，也就立马失掉了两分。问题出在哪儿呢？题干的核心在于纽约的特点，并没有完全针对24小时展开探讨。纽约城的特点恰恰在于第一段提到的walkability and transit-oriented，意思是步行友好和公共交通导向。所以正确答案应该是A，人们没有私家车也能生活。
"We found that women are doubly vulnerable to marital break-up in the face of illness," Karraker said. "They're more likely to be widowed, and if they're the ones who become ill, they're more likely to get divorced."
48. What does Karraker say about women who fall ill?
A) They are more likely to be widowed.
B) They are more likely to get divorced.
C) They are less likely to receive good care.
D) They are less likely to bother their spouses.
A little extra height brings a number of advantages, says Elio Riboli of Imperial College. "Being taller is associated with longer life expectancy," he said. "This is largely due to a lower risk of dying of cardiovascular (心血管的）disease among taller people."
53. What does Elio Riboli say about taller people?
A) They tend to live longer.
B) They enjoy an easier life.
C) They generally risk fewer fatal diseases.
D) They have greater expectations in life.
同义替换是阅读题里面使用的最为广泛的伎俩，正确答案很少会以本来的面目出现在选项中，大多时候都会采取同义替换的方式。简单一点儿的会采取如上真题的做法，只是简单换个单词而已，longer life expectancy等同于live longer，相同的意思从原文中的名词形式换成了选项中的动词词组。
Post wants to make clear that she's not talking about legal rights, but rather personal preferences. She also wants to explain that there are no right or wrong answers regarding manners on this front yet, because the technology is just now becoming mainstream. Besides, the Emily Post Institute doesn't dictate manners.
48. What is Lizzie Post mainly discussing with regard to the use of home security cameras?
A) Legal rights.
B) Moral issues.
C) Likes and dislikes of individuals.
D) The possible impact on manners.
Personal preferences对应的是C选项里的likes and dislikes of individuals，这种同义替换就会对学生的词汇量有着较高的要求了。
When you forget entire experiences, he says, that's "a red flag that something more serious may be involved." Forgetting how to operate a familiar object like a microwave oven, or forgetting how to drive to the house of a friend you've visited many times before can also be signs of something going wrong.
48. Which memory-related symptom should people take seriously?
A. Totally forgetting how to do one's daily routines.
B. Inability to recall details of one's life experiences.
C. Failure to remember the names of movies or actors.
D. Occasionally confusing the addresses of one's friends.
"It's an important, cautionary note that we shouldn't get too carried away with the idea that a computer system can replace doctors and therapists," says Christopher Dowrick, a professor of primary medical care at the University of Liverpool. "We do still need the human touch or the human interaction, particularly when people are depressed."
54. What is Professor Dowrick's advice concerning online CBT programs?
A) They should not be neglected in primary care.
B) Their effectiveness should not be overestimated.
C) They should be used by strictly following instructions.
D) Their use should be encouraged by doctors and therapists.
Indra Nooyi, PepsiCo chairman, said the plan to make its products healthier was important for the company's growth. But on the subject of obesity, she pointed out that consumers' lifestyles have changed significantly, with many people being more sedentary（久坐不动的）not least because more time is spent in front of computers. She said PepsiCo's contribution was to produce healthier snacks that still tasted good.
54. What does Indra Nooyi say about the obesity epidemic?
A) It is mainly caused by overconsumption of snacks.
B) It results from high sugar and salt consumption.
C) It is attributable to people's changed lifestyles.
D) It has a lot to do with longer working hours.
Does the study mean that cats will soon grasp the ins and outs of cause and effect? Maybe, Okay, so cats may not be the next physics faculty members at America's most important research universities. But by demonstrating their common sense, they've shown that the divide between cats and humans may not be that great after all.
50. What can we conclude about cats from the passage?
A) They have higher intelligence than many other animals.
B) They interact with the physical world much like humans.
C) They display extraordinarily high intelligence in hunting.
D) They can aid physics professors in their research work.
Leonard Hayflick, a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, said the idea that aging can be cured implies the human lifespan can be increased, which some researchers suggest is possible. Hayflick is not among them.
50. What does professor Leonard Hayflick believe?
A. The human lifespan cannot be prolonged.
B. Aging is hardly separable from disease.
C. Few people live up to the age of 92.
D. Heart disease is the major cause of aging.
The secret to eating less and being happy about it may have been cracked years ago—by McDonald's. According to a new study from Cornell University's Food and Brand Lab, small non-food rewards--like the toys in McDonald's Happy Meals--stimulate the same reward centers in the brain as food does.
51. What do we learn about McDonald's inclusion of toys in its Happy Meals?
A. It may shed light on people's desire to crack a secret.
B. It has proved to be key to McDonald's business success.
C. It appeals to kid's curiosity to find out what is hidden inside.
D. It may be a pleasant way for kids to reduce their food intake.
文中最后一句内容确实跟题干相关了，但是似乎又无法帮助确定答案。能确定的是ABC三个选项都是无中生有，原文根本没有提及的内容，所以可以排除，而D选项正是正确答案，与文中第一句eating less and being happy about it对应。
Also, mothers may call on their children more often than fathers, given traditional gender norms. There was no evidence that errors occurred more when the misnamer was frustrated, tired or angry.
55. Why do mothers misname their children more often than fathers?
A) They suffer more frustrations.
B) They become worn out more often.
C) They communicate more with their children.
D) They generally take on more work at home.
Older drivers and visually-or physically-impaired people would gain a new level of freedom. Maintaining safe speeds and being electric, self-driving cars would drastically reduce pollution levels and dependency on non- renewable fuels. Roads would be quieter, people safer.
52. How would the elderly and the disabled benefit from driverless cars?
A) They could enjoy greater mobility. C) They would have no trouble driving.
B) They would suffer no road accidents. D) They could go anywhere they want.
But that wasn't the case. Instead of giving people practice, the gradual reduction likely gave them cravings （瘾）and withdrawal symptoms before they even reached quit day, which could be why fewer people in that group actually made it to that Point.
55. What happens when people try to quit smoking gradually?
A. They find it even more difficult.
B. They are simply unable to make it.
C. They show fewer withdrawal symptoms.
D. They feel much less pain in the process.
A letter written by Charles Darwin in 1875 has been returned to the Smithsonian Institution Archives (档案馆) by the FBI after being stolen twice.
"We realized in the mid-1970s that it was missing," says Effie Kapsalis, head of the Smithsonian Insitution Archives. "It was noted as missing and likely taken by an intern (实习生), from what the FBI is telling us. Word got out that it was missing when someone asked to see the letter for research purposes," and the intern put the letter back. "The intern likely took the letter again once nobody was watching it."
51. What happened to Darwin's letter in the 1970s?
A. It was recovered by the FBI.
B. It was stolen more than once.
C. It was put in the archives for research purposes.
D. It was purchased by the Smithsonian Archives.