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大学英语四级答题技巧之细节阅读,南通英语四

2020-11-18 09:53 南通本部校老师
大部分外语考试中,但凡有涉及到阅读,不出意外都会有细节阅读题。所以,在大学英语四级考试中也没有例外,阅读占试卷总分35%,而细节阅读题型的占比是整个阅读题题型的2/3.那么针对这重要题型,我们要怎么着手呢?本文阅读题型的整体概况,题材体裁,出题特点,答题逻辑和答案特点五个部分对细节阅读作出分析,同时会引用历年真题给出一个例证,仔细学习后希望能给大家对此类题型带来全新的理解和更好的把握。
一、整体概况
细节阅读题一共2篇,字数大概都在350左右,分段每套试卷都略有不同,不过大多在5段以上。想必是考虑到人类的阅读习惯,为了避免超长段落的出现,方便大家进行阅读。
每篇阅读包括5个小题,一共10个小题,占了总分的20%,所以每一个小题都是双倍分值,710分满分的话,这一个小题就占了14.2分。所以,细节进行阅读的分值占比和听力里的短文训练听力是一致的,换句话说,四个题型设计当中,听力和阅读各占了35%,加在一起就是70%,这其中,单是短文听力和细节阅读就占了70%中的40%,所以听力和阅读哪个都不能轻易放弃!而听力和阅读中,各自的关键就在于短文听力和细节阅读。

二、体裁题材
在体裁和题材方面,文章多为论述文,主题为不同领域的研究和调查。
考查分析近两年的题目,涉及的是老年夫妻婚姻研究、叫错名字原因分析调查、女性领导力研究、各国身高调查、涂鸦的社会实验、线上抑郁症研究和猫的研究方法等等,基本是一些比较实事的话题相关的调查或者研究。
一般学生看到调查或者研究类型的文章往往很容易露怯,甚至恐惧,因为害怕会有大量的数据和论述内容,由此带来的就是大量的不熟悉的词汇和语法。其实大可不必,因为由于文章特点,这种文章的答题点反而更好把握。
学术性文章的特点:
1.首段一般为主题段,概括文章内容主旨
2.每段的首句就是该段的主题句,统领该段的方向和内容
3.行文语言规范,逻辑严谨,很少歧义和委婉,在选择的时候不容易出现模糊选项
基于这些特质,导致文章思路和内容很好把握,有利于寻找答案。相反,我们都喜欢读的有意思的文学、创作文章更难理解,更容易被误读,出现误导选项。

三、出题特点
大学英语四级考试中,细节阅读的出题主要都是对细节的考核,也不乏对文章细节进行推理的题类型,算是比较中规中矩。(比方说猜测词义,比方说主旨题,比方说单句释义和否定提问等等)
1. 先说细节题,一般都是以特殊疑问词what或why等引导出的。常见的提问方式一般都是:
What does…suggest to…/What is…advice
What is the reason for…
Why…
What account for…
What is important/essential/crucial/necessary…
What can conclude…
How…/In what way…
所以总结起来无非问的就是:
什么原因,做了什么行为,目的是,结果是,建议是,怎样的方式,什么样的影响等
2. 再说推理题。一般可以涉及到what + learn, say, think, imply, infer, suggest等基本上就是对文章细节进行推理的。常见的提问方式一般都是:
What can/do we learn from…
What do…find/say about…
What do…imply…
总结起来问的就是了解、认为、考虑了什么或者干脆暗示了什么。而答案一般并没有在原文进行直接影响体现,而是采取了一些其他的委婉表达方式。
 
以19年6月的真题举例:
 
46. What can we learn about marriage vows from the passage?
 
47. What did Karraker and co-author Kenzie Latham find about elderly husbands?
 
48. What does Karraker say about women who fall ill?
 
49. Why is it more difficult for men to take care of their sick spouses according to Karraker?
 
50. What does Karraker think is also important?
 
这里面有三个推理题和两个细节题,两个细节(47和49)分别问的是结果和原因。
 
 
四、答题程序
 
四级的细节阅读题设题是有着严格的顺序的,除了极少出现的总结题可能会涉及到一些前文的内容,其他绝大部分题型都是严格遵守着行文顺序出的(这一规律听力题同样适用)。基于这样的命题规律,解题的难度大大降低;但是一旦偶有遗忘,忽视了这样的规则,也真的会造成误解,导致不必要的失分。
 
举个例子,看一下17年12月的一套真题。
 
Nobody really knows how big Lagos is. What's indisputable is that it's growing very quickly. Between now and 2050, the urban population of Africa could triple. Yet cities in sub-Saharan Africa are not getting richer the way cities in the rest of the world have. Most urban Africans live in slums (贫民窟); migrants are often not much better off than they were in the countryside. Why?
 
The immediate problem is poverty. Most of Africa is urbanizing at a lower level of income than other regions of the world did. That means there's little money around for investment that would make cities livable and more productive. Without upgrades and new capacity, bridges, roads and power systems are unable to cope with expanding populations. With the exception of South Africa, the only light rail metro system in sub-Saharan Africa is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Traffic jam leads to expense and unpredictability, things that keep investors away.
 
In other parts of the world, increasing agricultural productivity and industrialization went together. More productive farmers meant there was a surplus that could feed cities; in turn, that created a pool of labor for factories. But African cities are different. They are too often built around consuming natural resources. Government is concentrated in capitals, so is the money. Most urban Africans work for a small minority of the rich, who tend to be involved in either cronyish (有裙带关系的) businesses or politics. Since African agriculture is still broadly unproductive, food is imported, consuming a portion of revenue.
 
46. What do we learn from the passage about cities in sub-Saharan Africa?
 
A. They have more slums than other cities in the world.
 
B. They are growing fast without becoming richer.
 
C. They are as modernized as many cities elsewhere.
 
D. They attract migrants who want to be better off.
 
47. What does the author imply about urbanization in other parts of the world?
 
A. It benefited from the contribution of immigrants.
 
B. It started when people's income was relatively high.
 
C. It benefited from the accelerated rise in productivity.
 
D. It started with the improvement of peopled livelihood.
 
48. Why is sub-Saharan Africa unappealing to investors?
 
A. It lacks adequate transport facilities.
 
B. The living expenses there are too high.
 
C. It is on the whole too densely populated.
 
D. The local governments are corrupted.
 
 
 
大家看47题,题干颇具误导性,问的是世界其他地方的城市化问题。46题的答案在第一段,原文一共4段,按照平均分配来看,第二段应该会有47题的答案,但是如果审题时盯住了“in other parts of the world”很容易会被带到第三段首句中,进一步错误地选择C选项。这就是忽视了出题顺序问题,更何况处理48题时会发现,48题的答案居然在第二段结尾划线部分,更应该警醒47题不可能跑到48题之后去寻找答案。
 
就47题来看,除了“in other parts of the world”之外还应该注意“urbanization”的问题,第三段谈的是农业和工业化的问题,跟这个题干实属不相干。正确答案位置在于第二段开头部分Most of Africa is urbanizing at a lower level of income than other regions of the world did.
 
Other regions 和other parts是同义替换,原句理解起来就是说大多数非洲国家的城市化的收入起点要比世界其他国家低,言下之意,就是世界其他国家城市化开始时,人民收入水平相对较高,四个选项只有B非常符合。那么这层意思并非原文直接表述,属于推理性质的言外之意,题干中的字眼也是imply,暗示的意思。
 
总结起来,就是除非总结全文主旨的题型(很少见),大部分要严格遵守出题顺序,做到精准定位,才能万无一失。
 
 
 
那么,总结一下整个答题流程。
 
 
1.审清题干,精准定位。
 
一般情况下完全没必要略读全文后再答题,由于出题顺序的限制,可以直接审题干,然后回到文章中的具体位置阅读。定位的关键在于务必审好题干,抓好关键词。
 
比如19年6月的一套真题的两个题干:
 
47. What do we learn from previous survey findings about women seeking leadership roles?
 
48. What is the primary factor keeping women from taking top leadership positions according to the recent survey?
 
两句话的划线部分决定了这两个题一个定位的是previous survey之前的调查;另一个是the recent survey最近的调查。如果忽视了这个细节,审题不严谨,就肯定造成失误。
 
 
2.正式阅读,反复比对。
 
找对位置之后,唯一要做的就是认真比对文中表述和选项内容。至于具体的答案筛选排除,在下一节具体探讨,这里特别要提示的是在确定答案的时候,一定不要想当然,所有的决定都是要在文中找到依据才行,一旦你开始自己展开想象的时候,就是要迈入“敌人”陷阱的时候。看一个17年6月的真题:
 
The report says America's urbanization will continue to be the most significant issue affecting the industry, as cities across the country imitate thewalkability and transit-oriented development making cities like New York and San Francisco so successful.
 
As smaller cities copy the model of these "24-hour cities," more affordable versions of these places will be created. The report refers to this as the coming of the "18-hour city," and uses the term to refer to cities like Houston, Austin, Charlotte, and Nashville, which are "positioning themselves as highly competitive, in terms of livability, employment offerings, and recreational and cultural facilities."
 
47. What characterizes "24-hour cities" like New York?
 
A. People can live without private cars.
 
B. People are generally more competitive.
 
C. People can enjoy services around the clock.
 
D. People are in harmony with the environment.
 
各位看47题,问的是像纽约这种24小时城市的特点是什么,定位很简单,很多人会一眼看到如上第二段的开头划线句,但是貌似没有怎么描述其特征,于是可能展开想象,“24小时城市当然就是提供24小时服务的城市”C选项刚好包括around the clock也就是夜以继日的意思,立马锁定了答案,也就立马失掉了两分。问题出在哪儿呢?题干的核心在于纽约的特点,并没有完全针对24小时展开探讨。纽约城的特点恰恰在于第一段提到的walkability and transit-oriented,意思是步行友好和公共交通导向。所以正确答案应该是A,人们没有私家车也能生活。
 
由此可见,做题关键在于一定不能“一厢情愿,自作多情”,所有判断必然有理有据,必然得根据原文才是,要不然,它也不能称其为阅读理解,干脆改名为自由发挥,常识判断得了。
 
 
五、答案特点
 
对于正确答案的确定和错误答案的排除总结如下。
 
1.正确答案
 
1)近在眼前
 
四级考试同所有考试一样,相当部分的题目是基础性的,有少量是拔高性的。阅读题同样适用,每一篇阅读题里,只有两三个是有些难度的,还有两三个是非常简单的,只要找对位置,答案就在眼前。
 
19年6月
 
"We found that women are doubly vulnerable to marital break-up in the face of illness," Karraker said. "They're more likely to be widowed, and if they're the ones who become ill, they're more likely to get divorced."
 
48. What does Karraker say about women who fall ill?
 
A) They are more likely to be widowed.
 
B) They are more likely to get divorced.
 
C) They are less likely to receive good care.
 
D) They are less likely to bother their spouses.
 
19年6月
 
A little extra height brings a number of advantages, says Elio Riboli of Imperial College. "Being taller is associated with longer life expectancy," he said. "This is largely due to a lower risk of dying of cardiovascular (心血管的)disease among taller people."
 
53. What does Elio Riboli say about taller people?
 
A) They tend to live longer.
 
B) They enjoy an easier life.
 
C) They generally risk fewer fatal diseases.
 
D) They have greater expectations in life.
 
只要看清题干,答案是很明确的。
 
 
 
2)同义替换
 
同义替换是阅读题里面使用的最为广泛的伎俩,正确答案很少会以本来的面目出现在选项中,大多时候都会采取同义替换的方式。简单一点儿的会采取如上真题的做法,只是简单换个单词而已,longer life expectancy等同于live longer,相同的意思从原文中的名词形式换成了选项中的动词词组。
 
当然还有更高明一点,更隐晦一些的替换方式,无形中增加了难度。
 
18年12月的真题:
 
Post wants to make clear that she's not talking about legal rights, but rather personal preferences. She also wants to explain that there are no right or wrong answers regarding manners on this front yet, because the technology is just now becoming mainstream. Besides, the Emily Post Institute doesn't dictate manners.
 
48. What is Lizzie Post mainly discussing with regard to the use of home security cameras?
 
A) Legal rights.
 
B) Moral issues.
 
C) Likes and dislikes of individuals.
 
D) The possible impact on manners.
 
Personal preferences对应的是C选项里的likes and dislikes of individuals,这种同义替换就会对学生的词汇量有着较高的要求了。
 
18年6月:
 
When you forget entire experiences, he says, that's "a red flag that something more serious may be involved." Forgetting how to operate a familiar object like a microwave oven, or forgetting how to drive to the house of a friend you've visited many times before can also be signs of something going wrong.
 
48. Which memory-related symptom should people take seriously?
 
A. Totally forgetting how to do one's daily routines.
 
B. Inability to recall details of one's life experiences.
 
C. Failure to remember the names of movies or actors.
 
D. Occasionally confusing the addresses of one's friends.
 
原文中的“整体经历”是第一个提示点,后面的内容,比如忘记怎么开车前往去过很多次的朋友家,都等同于A选项中的daily routine,日常生活。
 
 
 
3)言外之意
 
言外之意的情况会更经常出现在推理题里。其实本质上也是同义替换,不过要比换词这种手法高级的多,读者要通过理解去体会弦外之音,也就是间接表达的另外一层意思。
 
19年:
 
"It's an important, cautionary note that we shouldn't get too carried away with the idea that a computer system can replace doctors and therapists," says Christopher Dowrick, a professor of primary medical care at the University of Liverpool. "We do still need the human touch or the human interaction, particularly when people are depressed."
 
54. What is Professor Dowrick's advice concerning online CBT programs?
 
A) They should not be neglected in primary care.
 
B) Their effectiveness should not be overestimated.
 
C) They should be used by strictly following instructions.
 
D) Their use should be encouraged by doctors and therapists.
 
原文划线部分意思是我们不应该过分沉浸于电脑系统可以取代医生和治疗师这种想法,也就是说答案B: 我们不该高估电脑系统治疗的有效性
 
 
 
4)急转直下
 
相当一部分题目的答案设置都在转折词语后面,最常见的转折词语就是but了。除此之外还有while,however,instead,nonetheless等。
 
18年12月:
 
Indra Nooyi, PepsiCo chairman, said the plan to make its products healthier was important for the company's growth. But on the subject of obesity, she pointed out that consumers' lifestyles have changed significantly, with many people being more sedentary(久坐不动的)not least because more time is spent in front of computers. She said PepsiCo's contribution was to produce healthier snacks that still tasted good.
 
54. What does Indra Nooyi say about the obesity epidemic?
 
A) It is mainly caused by overconsumption of snacks.
 
B) It results from high sugar and salt consumption.
 
C) It is attributable to people's changed lifestyles.
 
D) It has a lot to do with longer working hours.
 
 
 
Does the study mean that cats will soon grasp the ins and outs of cause and effect? Maybe, Okay, so cats may not be the next physics faculty members at America's most important research universities. But by demonstrating their common sense, they've shown that the divide between cats and humans may not be that great after all.
 
50. What can we conclude about cats from the passage?
 
A) They have higher intelligence than many other animals.
 
B) They interact with the physical world much like humans.
 
C) They display extraordinarily high intelligence in hunting.
 
D) They can aid physics professors in their research work.
 
 
 
这种是有明确转折词语的,还算是比较动机明确;还有转折得十分巧妙,不着痕迹的,一不小心就会出错。
 
17年12月:
 
Leonard Hayflick, a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, said the idea that aging can be cured implies the human lifespan can be increased, which some researchers suggest is possible. Hayflick is not among them.
 
50. What does professor Leonard Hayflick believe?
 
A. The human lifespan cannot be prolonged.
 
B. Aging is hardly separable from disease.
 
C. Few people live up to the age of 92.
 
D. Heart disease is the major cause of aging.
 
原文的大概意思是:海夫里克说到衰老可被治愈这种理念暗示着人类的寿命可以被延长。一些研究人员都暗示这是可能的。海夫里克不在其中。
 
问的是海夫里克的观点是什么。这样翻译看来的话没什么,但是粗看英文的话,很容易忽视最后一句,进而误解海夫里克认同人的寿命可以被延长,从而排除了A选项。
 
 
 
2.错误答案
 
1)无中生有
 
这是很典型的一种设置干扰项的方式。这些干扰项可能与文中内容完全不相干,但是本身又貌似合理,尤其是当这一题的正确答案本身存在很高明的同义替换时,更会让答题者头晕目眩。
 
16年12月真题:
 
The secret to eating less and being happy about it may have been cracked years ago—by McDonald's. According to a new study from Cornell University's Food and Brand Lab, small non-food rewards--like the toys in McDonald's Happy Meals--stimulate the same reward centers in the brain as food does.
 
51. What do we learn about McDonald's inclusion of toys in its Happy Meals?
 
A. It may shed light on people's desire to crack a secret.
 
B. It has proved to be key to McDonald's business success.
 
C. It appeals to kid's curiosity to find out what is hidden inside.
 
D. It may be a pleasant way for kids to reduce their food intake.
 
文中最后一句内容确实跟题干相关了,但是似乎又无法帮助确定答案。能确定的是ABC三个选项都是无中生有,原文根本没有提及的内容,所以可以排除,而D选项正是正确答案,与文中第一句eating less and being happy about it对应。
 
 
 
2)违背文意
 
Also, mothers may call on their children more often than fathers, given traditional gender norms. There was no evidence that errors occurred more when the misnamer was frustrated, tired or angry.
 
55. Why do mothers misname their children more often than fathers?
 
A) They suffer more frustrations.
 
B) They become worn out more often.
 
C) They communicate more with their children.
 
D) They generally take on more work at home.
 
文中已经明确提到,没有证据显示叫错名字跟疲惫或者愤怒有多大联系,所以AB明显是违背原文意思的错误选项。
 
 
 
3)以偏概全
 
18年12月:
Older drivers and visually-or physically-impaired people would gain a new level of freedom. Maintaining safe speeds and being electric, self-driving cars would drastically reduce pollution levels and dependency on non- renewable fuels. Roads would be quieter, people safer.
 
52. How would the elderly and the disabled benefit from driverless cars?
 
A) They could enjoy greater mobility. C) They would have no trouble driving.
 
B) They would suffer no road accidents. D) They could go anywhere they want.
 
原文只是说自动驾驶汽车能让老年人和残疾人获得新层次的自由,不意味着D选项中他们可以去任何想去的地方。明显是以偏概全。
 
17年6月:
 
But that wasn't the case. Instead of giving people practice, the gradual reduction likely gave them cravings (瘾)and withdrawal symptoms before they even reached quit day, which could be why fewer people in that group actually made it to that Point.
 
55. What happens when people try to quit smoking gradually?
 
A. They find it even more difficult.
 
B. They are simply unable to make it.
 
C. They show fewer withdrawal symptoms.
 
D. They feel much less pain in the process.
 
原文中只说是fewer较少的,而干扰项D中却说他们就是无法完成,把较少等同于没有,属于是以偏概全,过于绝对。
 
 
 
4)偷天换日
 
也是阅读题干扰项中惯用的手段。一般这个选项会带有原文关键处的重要信息,但是却借用偷换主语或宾语的手法增加迷惑性,让人防不胜防。
 
18年6月题:
 
A letter written by Charles Darwin in 1875 has been returned to the Smithsonian Institution Archives (档案馆) by the FBI after being stolen twice.
 
"We realized in the mid-1970s that it was missing," says Effie Kapsalis, head of the Smithsonian Insitution Archives. "It was noted as missing and likely taken by an intern (实习生), from what the FBI is telling us. Word got out that it was missing when someone asked to see the letter for research purposes," and the intern put the letter back. "The intern likely took the letter again once nobody was watching it."
 
51. What happened to Darwin's letter in the 1970s?
 
A. It was recovered by the FBI.
 
B. It was stolen more than once.
 
C. It was put in the archives for research purposes.
 
D. It was purchased by the Smithsonian Archives.
 
题干问的是达尔文的信件在19世纪70年代经历了什么。最具迷惑性的选项应该是A,因为第一段的内容,达尔文的信是在19世纪70年代写就的,但FBI的追回事件并没有说发生在何时。A选项把达尔文写信时间和FBI办案时间混为一谈,偷天换日,对于草草答题的学生来说,很容易出岔子。正确答案得从第二段看,划线部分提示,一共被偷了两次。
 
所以,所有的题都是可以抓住出题的规律进行答题的,大家遇到题一定不要慌,
多练就get到答题的逻辑,按照逻辑来,不一定非要文章里的每一个字都要读懂才能答题。同时,因为大学英语六级的出题思路与四级偏差不大,所以上述答题技巧也同样适用于六级。
 
还有1个月,2020年最后一场大学英语四级考试就要来了,大家准备好了吗?
 
 

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